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「G」态度:像初创企业一样创新,像风投公司一样决策

A lean startup approach, we are told, can empower big companies to innovate rapidly and effectively in the face of continual disruption, potentially even transforming enterprises into centers of continual new growth. Responding to this promise, many companies have started putting these ideas to use: A recent study of 170 organizations with $1 billion or more in revenue found that over 82% are currently using a lean startup approach in some aspect of their business.

有人说,精益创业方法可以帮助大型企业在面临不断瓦解的情况下快速有效地进行创新,甚至可能将企业转变为持续的新增长中心。为了响应这一黄金法则,许多企业已经开始将这些想法付诸实践:一项针对170家收入为10亿美元或以上企业展开的最新研究发现,目前,超过82%企业的某些业务都正在采用这种精益创业方法。

Yet for all of the resources that have gone into applying a lean approach, these organizations do not have much to show yet. Faster times to market, greater flexibility on the way there, and greater focus on the customer — common results of a successful lean implementation — are all positives. However, they hardly represent the transformation that has been promised with this new approach.

这些企业对应用精益方法已经投入了大量资源,但还没有取得什么成绩。精益方法成功的常见结果——上市更快、灵活性更高以及更加专注于客户——都是积极的一面。但是,它们代表不了精益创业方法能带来的改变。

What is missing from this equation for growth?

这个增长等式中缺少了什么?

Quite a bit — half of it, to be exact. The model for creating new growth that we see in successful innovation hubs everywhere involves two sides: the entrepreneurial side, responsible for managing the discovery, validation and development of new businesses, and the venture side, responsible for managing a portfolio of these businesses with the use of investment theses and funding decisions in order to shape and ultimately capture new value. More than any particular activity or agent, it is the continual interplay between these two sides that drives growth.

确切地说,缺少了相当多,几乎一半。我们在各地成功的创新中心看到的创造新增长的模式有两个特点:创业者负责管理开辟、验证和拓展新业务;风投公司负责运用投资理论和融资决策来管理这些业务组合,从而塑造并最终获得新收益。除了特定的活动或代理商之外,真正推动增长的是这两者间持续的相互作用。

Applying a lean approach in your organization is getting half of the model right, but it is not enough. For enterprises to create successful growth systems, they need more than lean startup methodologies; they also need venture capital investment mindsets and mechanics. They need what we call a growth board.

把精益方法应用到你的公司,该模式就成功了一半,但这远远不够。企业要想打造成功的增长机制,不仅需要精益创业方法论,也需要风险投资的理念和机制。他们需要我们所说的成长委员会。

A growth board is a group of senior executives within an organization that meet regularly to review, discuss, and ultimately fund or kill new growth initiatives. It functions as the enterprise equivalent of venture capital and uses many of the same mindsets and lenses that VCs do in evaluating and deciding on opportunities. Over the past few years we have established and convened growth boards at over a dozen Fortune 200 companies to provide the other half of the new growth ecosystem.

成长委员会由公司内的一组高级管理人员组成,他们定期开会审查、讨论决定最终资助还是扼杀新的增长计划。作为风险资本的企业等同物,该委员会在评估和决定机会时采用的许多思维和角度和风险投资公司采用的是一样的。在过去几年中,我们已经在十几家《财富》200强企业中成立并召开了成长委员会, 弥补新增长机制缺失的另一半助力。

The impact is substantial. Jud Linville, CEO of Citi Global Cards, says, “Installing growth boards led to a dramatic change in how we resource and support growth at Citi Cards. It ensured we could move fast on big opportunities, forced us to kill startups when needed, and helped us think like startup investors, searching for imperfect signals and good-enough answers rather than demanding unknowable forecasts from our teams.”

这产生了巨大的影响。花旗全球信用卡公司(Citi Global Cards)首席执行官贾德·林维尔(Jud Linville)表示,“成长委员会的成立使公司产生了巨大变化,主要体现在利用资源和支持花旗信用卡公司业务增长方面。它确保我们能够在碰到大的机遇时快速行动,迫使我们在需要时扼杀初创企业,帮助我们像创业投资者一样思考、寻找缺陷的信号和完美的解决方案,而不是要求我们团队做出不可知的预测。”

Done correctly, growth boards are not simply an executive-level extension of the entrepreneurial mindset encompassed by lean methods, but add an entirely new dimension to the conversation about business initiatives. Together, these dimensions combine to form the best possible foundation for discovering and growing the initiatives.

如果运营恰当的话,成长委员会不仅会在管理层面延伸精益方法中所包含的企业家精神,还会为商业计划的对话提出一个全新的思考维度。这些维度结合在一起,就为发现和实施商业计划奠定了良好基础。

Hannah Jones, VP of innovation for Nike, says the company uses growth boards to search for new opportunities to better serve athletes and drive sustained profitable growth. “The rigorous methodology serves as a framework we use to solve customer frictions and serve unmet needs to focus on real, in-market learnings.”

耐克公司创新部副总裁汉娜·琼斯(Hannah Jones)表示,耐克利用成长委员会探索新的发展机会,以便更好地为运动员提供服务并推动持续盈利增长。“严谨的方法论为我们提供了一个框架,可以用来解决客户冲突并满足过去未能满足的客户需求,以专注于真实的市场中的学习。”

Growth boards are complex, evolving things, not easily reduced to a series of steps or created out of a box. That said, here are some principles to keep in mind as you introduce growth boards into your current innovation plan:

成长委员会的运营是一项复杂且不断变化的工作,不能轻易简化为一系列的步骤或凭空捏造。也就是说,在你将成长委员会引入当前的创新计划中时,请牢记以下原则:

Convene members regularly. Growth boards only function well if they follow a regular cadence, with all members present. This is not a one-off or sporadic meeting, but an ongoing conversation played out over regular intervals. New ways of thinking about opportunities must be developed by the board as a team. Quarterly meetings with all members present to review, discuss, and make decisions are the best way to organize your growth board. No voting in absentia, no catching up later; you have to be part of the conversation — in person — to participate.

定期召集成员开会。只有定期召集成员开会,并保证所有成员都在场,成长委员会才能发挥良好作用。这不是一次性的或不定时的会议,而是定期持续进行的对话。委员会作为一个团队,必须讨论出新的方式来并考虑机会是否可行。与所有成员召开季度总结会议,审查、讨论和作出决策,是组织成长委员会的最佳方式。不准缺席投票环节,不能稍后补上,你必须亲自参与会议讨论。

Consider a large volume of bets. Like VC firms, growth boards concern themselves with portfolios, not single opportunities. A growth board meeting should focus on a sizable number of bets built around a coherent growth thesis. By acting on a portfolio, your growth board gets to apply learnings from each opportunity to the others, to maximize learning velocity. And considering a variety of opportunities also maximizes your chances of finding breakout successes.

考虑大量投资。成长委员会和风险投资公司一样,关注投资组合,而不是单一的投资机会。成长委员会会议的重点应放在基于连贯增长理念的大量投资上。通过运用投资组合,你公司的成长委员会可将从每个机会中学习到的知识应用到其它机会上,从而最大限度地提高学习速度。而且综合考虑各种投资机会,也能最大限度地提高成功的几率。

Once leaders make the shift from thinking in terms of single bets to a portfolio, they empower teams to increase the number of ideas they test by an order of magnitude — from two or three to 20 or 30 — and encourage a high failure rate. This change is productive: You want to get away from imagining that you can pinpoint what the future looks like, and instead use a portfolio approach to discover the correct version of the future at just the right time.

一旦管理者从单一投资转向投资组合,他们将助力团队实践更多投资创意——从2个或3个到20个或30个,并鼓励他们接受失败。这种转变是富有成效的:你不再希望通过想象来确定未来发展方向,而是使用组合的方法在合适的时机发掘未来发展方向。

Ask the right questions. Once you’ve convened your team of senior executives, developed a growth thesis, and seeded a portfolio of opportunities, you need to guide the board to ask the right questions. The right questions are different for the various stages that startups go through, but they are always aligned with commercial truth rather than innovation theater.

提出正确的问题。一旦你召集了你的高管团队,开发了新的成长理念,并且孕育了一系列机会,你需要指导成长委员会提出正确的问题。对于创业公司经历的各个阶段而言,正确的问题是不同的,但它们总是与商业真理而不是创新剧场相一致。

At the seed stage, the questions should be about speed and cost of learning — what kind of evidence do we have to confirm or reject an assumption? At this stage you’re looking for signals that a team is on the right track, as opposed to hard, quantitative metrics that would put undue burden on nascent ideas.

在机会孕育阶段,提出的问题应与速度和学习成本有关,即我们有什么的证据来通过或否决设想机会?在这个阶段,你正在寻找一个表明团队正处于正确轨道的信号,而不是对新生创意造成不必要负担的硬性量化指标。

In the MVP stage, the questions should be about the customer and product-market fit, as well as the unit economics that will drive the enterprise value. What kind of machine are you building, how much do customers like it, and how much value could it ultimately bring to the organization are all lines of questioning to explore at this stage.

在MVP阶段,提出的问题应该和客户、市场匹配以及推动企业价值的单位经济有关。你在建立什么样的机构?顾客对其接受程度如何?以及它最终能给公司带来多少价值?这些都是现阶段应该探索的问题。

Only when it’s time to scale should you start asking about profitability, margin, and revenue projections. The worst thing you can do is measure a startup against enterprise financial ratios.

只有在规模扩大的时候,你才可以开始考虑盈利能力、保证金和收入预测相关的问题。千万不要以企业财务比率来衡量一家初创企业。

Fund teams and problems, not ideas. When funding new initiatives, executives typically think about which strategies to implement and how to execute them. Growth boards, by contrast, fund the problem space and the team going after it, not the idea or strategy per se. Like VCs, they are primarily focused on finding a really big problem and a great team to solve it. The solution itself is likely to change as the team learns more about the space. By focusing on teams and problems instead of solutions, growth boards discover growth instead of planning it. As a member of a growth board, you are there not to manage ideas but to establish the permissions needed to gain advantages for your organization.

为团队以及问题而不是单纯的创意提供资金支持。在支持新项目时,高管通常会考虑的问题有:实施哪些战略以及如何执行这些策略。相反,成长委员会则为问题空间和团队提供资金支持,而不是支持创意或策略本身。他们和风险投资公司一样,主要聚焦于寻找真正的大问题,并找到出色的团队来解决这个问题。随着团队对问题空间有更多了解,解决方案本身可能会有所变化。通过关注团队和问题而不是解决方案,成长委员会可以发现增长点而不是计划。作为成长委员会的成员,你不必负责提供投资创意,但需要负责制定探索发展机会的条件,以便为企业创造更多利益。

Learn and move forward quickly. Growth boards are as much about learning as they are about funding or defunding any particular idea. The byproduct of evaluating multiple solutions in one problem space is gaining a deeper understanding of that space than could be achieved by any other means. But the value of this learning diminishes if the board and the teams reporting to it get bogged down in some issue or other. To get the most value from your growth board, discover what can be learned, then make decisions to kill or move forward quickly. Velocity of learning is crucial; where new growth is concerned, those who learn the fastest win.

快速学习,锐意进取。对于成长委员会来说,学习与是否资助某项投资创意同等重要。在一个问题空间中评估多个解决方案可以获得对该空间的更深入理解,这是无法通过任何其他方式实现的。但是,如果委员会和向其报告的团队在某些问题上陷入困境、停滞不前,那这种学习的价值就会降低。为了从成长委员会中获得最大价值,你必须发掘可以学习的内容,然后做出决定是扼杀它还是快速向前发展。学习速度至关重要;在新的增长领域,获胜的会是那些学习速度较快的人。

Companies have spent the better part of the last decade investing in startup methodologies without reaping any real benefits. This is through no fault of the lean startup process. Rather it is because lean by itself is not enough to stimulate new growth. Growth boards are the missing piece of the startup ecosystem that ignites the power of the entrepreneurial approach. With an effective growth board in place, a company can start to realize the benefits that have eluded it.

在过去的十年中,公司已经在投资初创企业的方法上花了很多时间,但没有获得任何实际收益。这不是精益创业过程的错。相反,仅仅依靠自身的力量不足以刺激新的增长。点燃创业方针力量的创业生态系统中缺失了成长委员会这一部分元素。通过一个在恰当位置设立的有效的成长委员会,公司就可以实现那些错失的利益。
文章来源:《哈佛商业评论》,由戈壁创投编译不容错过更多关于戈壁创投的分享

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